The attempts of the UN Support Mission in Libya continues to gather the different Libyan parties that failed till now to find a clear mechanism to choose the state’s executive authority which suffer from institutional division throughout the recent 5 years.
A dialogue at home: The obstacles of the past
The inability of Committee 75 that is supposed to represent the conflicting Libyan parties and try to create a consensus space which led to a clear more from the Legislative Authority to gather its dispersal after its failure to hold a full quorum session during the recent 3 years, in order to block what the Libyan Parliament considers the mission’s attempt to take the legislative authority from the parliament and give it to the committee 75 due to the parliament’s inability in holding the meeting. In that context, the Libyan House of Representatives held a full quorum session in Gadames, 600 Kilometers southwest of Tripoli.bat the end of the session, one deputy made a final statement of the session, indicating that the most important issues that impede re-unifying the House were discussed. The statement emphasized the unity of the House of Representatives, re-unification with the presence of 127 representatives, the aim of giving another opportunity to the rest of representatives to attend and building bridges of trust among the representatives. According to the concluding statement, the representatives agreed to hold the coming session in Gadames on the 21st and 22nd of December. In the first session, the presidential office of the House of Representatives would be re-elected, the parliamentary term would be approved by 6 months for each term, and the bylaw would be amended accordingly. At the second session, the parliamentary committees would be re-elected, the temporary technical committees would be formed, making policies, communicating concerning forming the sovereign positions and discussing the suggested amendments on the bylaw.
It is mentioned that the Libyan House of Representatives (elected since mid 2014) was divided into two councils: One Of them is in Tripoli, headed by Hammouda Siyalah and the other in Tobruk in the east of the country, headed by counsellor Aguila Saleh who didn’t attend the Gadames session and called for holding a session in Benghazi (the permanent headquarter of the House of Representative) which 20 representatives attended it.
This session came after a consultative session held in Tangiers at the end of last November by the invitation of the Kingdom of Morocco and after years of incomplete quorum in the House of Representatives’ session.
In a previous statement to the German News Agency (dpa), the media advisor to the Speaker of the House of Representatives in Tobruk, Fathi Al Marimi, stated that the sessions of the House of Representatives held in recent years are “suspended sessions” from the last official session held with the legal quorum approved according to the internal regulations of the House of Representatives which is estimated by 96 members.
In continuation of international efforts to find a solution to the Libyan crisis, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, António Guterres, said that the international organization is looking forward to cooperation with the African Union in order to facilitate holding the Libyan national reconciliation conference. The United Nations website published the word of its Secretary General, who praised the African UN partnership after the two parties signed the ceasefire agreement in Libya under the auspices of the United Nationswhich resulted in resuming the political talks.
It is noteworthy that the UN mission in Libya decided to hold a new online session during the coming days for the Forum for Political Dialogue to complete the discussion of the next steps on mechanisms for choosing the executive authority based on the proposals presented by the members of the forum. The Acting Special Representative of the UN Secretary-Generalin Libya, Stephanie Williams, praised the “great progress” made during the last sessions, announced Sunday that the results of the vote were with the participation of 71 members, with 29 votes for the second proposal, 24 votes for the third proposal, and 8 votes for the tenth proposal.
The shadow of weapon in Libya returns to the ground: Al Wattayah base again and Haftar is moving
Despite the success of the military path in Libya, which was approved by the United Nations Mission in what is known as the Committee of 10, which was able to achieve a convergence of views of the two conflicting parties during the past two years, there are many reports issued by some unofficial sources during the past weeks that there is a military mobilization, specifically at the Al Wattayah military base in In the west of the country and that there are operations to enter weapons to this base.
This is confirmed by what was stated by the spokesman for the General Command, Major General Ahmed Al Mismari, on Tuesday, the 8th of December of 2020, that his forces “are at war with Turkey, and it is a real confrontation, exacerbated by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.” Al Mismari explained in an interview with Sky Channel Arab News »: “We are in a state of war with Turkey, we entered into a real confrontation, and no one announced a cessation of the battle. rather, we announced a ceasefire out of respect for the efforts of the international community, friends and the desires of the Libyans to end the war,” adding: “Erdogan never stopped transferring weapons to Libya.”
He pointed out that “the Turkish ship that was intercepted by the Libyan National Army had entered a prohibited military zone”. The General Command forces announced, on Monday night, 7 – December – 2020, the interception of a Turkish ship, which was heading towards the port of Misurata in the west of the country, in violation of the ban imposed on Libya regarding the supply of weapons, and Al Mismari said: “Since 2016, we have prevented even Libyan fishing boats from entering the Libyan military zone, and it is forbidden for any military vessel to enter this area. However, we were surprised that the Turkish ship entered this area without the coordination or knowledge of the Libyan Coast Guard. He added, “We made a call to the ship and it did not respond to us, as well as it did not take the international procedures followed in this situation when it entered Line 34. So there are three mistakes from its captain. On the other hand, the spokesman for the General Command said, “We are now waiting for the implementation of removing foreigners according to the 90-day deadline set by the United Nations mission. In case the mission succeeds in deporting them, we Libyans are very easy to understand”.
In a clear reaction from Turkey, Italian media reported that Turkish warplanes had flown over the Sirte and Jufrah regions, after Haftar’s forces detained a Turkish cargo ship that entered the waters of eastern Libya. The website of the Rai TV network stated that Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan threatened a severe retaliatory response after the forces of Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar “took control” of a Turkish-owned cargo ship flying the Jamaican flag after entering a “military operations area” off the coast of Ras Al Hilal.
In this regard, it pointed out, “the escalation of tension between Turkey and General Khalifa Haftar, the strongman of Cyrenaica. Ankara is threatening “serious consequences” in case the Turkish ship that was detained by the Field Marshal’s forces is not released immediately together with its 17 crew members. The Italian TV network reported in the past hours that, “Turkish military overflights in the Sirte and Jufrah regions, on the armistice line between the two armies. Who have been facing each other for months. “
The source introducedTurkey as “one of the main supporters of the Government of National Accord (GNA), with which it has signed two agreements since November 2019, one to demarcate the maritime borders, and the other for military cooperation between Ankara and Tripoli. The Italian television network followed in this regard, noting that “the second agreement was specifically related to the important military mission which Turkey saved the government of Fayez al-Sarraj from the siege of Haftar’s militia and its allies in June this year.
Economy and Oil: The main institutions are forced to be unified
On the economic level, and after 6 years, the board of directors of the (divided) Central Bank of Libya held a preliminary meeting to discuss the reactivation of the council’s work in a way that achieves the goals of the central bank by law, which include stabilizing the general level of prices and supporting the banking system soundness
The bank pointed out that the meeting held in Tripoli aimed to achieve an optimistic view forward through the implementation of the appropriate monetary policy and adjusting the exchange rate in a manner that achieves the sustainability of financial and monetary integrity in the long term, and directing the financial policy towards undertaking the important reforms that accompany this important event. The bank said that the spirit of optimism and a common outlook to achieve the public interest prevailed in the meeting of the Board of Directors. The members of the Board of Directors of the Central Bank in the eastern city of Al-Bayda had arrived a few days ago in the capital, Tripoli, to hold the meeting.
The meeting came as a result of a financial meeting that the President of the Presidential Council of the Libyan Government of National Accord, Fayez Al Sarraj, had called for in order to resolve the dispute between the governor of the Central Bank of Libya in Tripoli, Siddiq al-Kabir, and the head of the National Oil Corporation in Libya, Mustafa Sonallah, after the latter accused the governor of the Central Bank of wasting Oil money, which is the main resource in Libya, and he decided to freeze the funds of Libyan oil sales in the corporation’s account in the “Libyan Foreign Bank,” which caused a depreciation of the Libyan dinar on the “parallel” black market for the currency.
It is noteworthy that the meeting of the Board of Directors of the Central Bank of Libya is the first after more than 6 years, after the bank was divided in 2014 into two banks, the first is internationally recognized and is based in the capital, Tripoli, headed by Al Saddiq Al Kabeer, and the second is parallel, and is based in the city of Al Bayda, and is headed by Ali Al Habri.
This number indicates that the Libyans are living under the weight of economic and health suffering in Libya, and the committee stated that, in partnership with the International Cooperation and Relief Organization and the Ministry of State for Displaced Person’s Affairs, an emergency humanitarian and health response plan was launched.
The committee indicated that the plan targeted the most vulnerable and needy groups which are children, women, displaced persons at home, migrants and asylum seekers in detention and shelter centers in Libya.
These initiatives remain the first steps to address the humanitarian situation in Libya, unless they remain limited in light of the continued dominance of armed and paramilitary groups and the division of state institutions, which led to the deterioration of the social and economic situation.
In the same direction, freedom of thought and expression faces many challenges and terrorist threats. During the last week, the Tanarout cultural organization stopped its activities after receiving serious threats that endanger the lives of its members.
The regime’s elections and a voting for repressing the civil work
The ballot boxes closed for the second day of the run-off round of the second phase of the parliament, in 13 governorates, to settle 100 seats in the Parliament 2020. Now the counting process inside the committees is starting to announce the numerical count of those who cast their votes. The regime holds its elections, however its systematic policy in repressing the civil work continues, exploiting the judiciary through eluding the legal chapters and procedures.
The Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights
The Egyptian authorities released 3 leaders from the Egyptian Initiative For Personal Rights EIPR after 15 days of imprisonment pending investigation. This comes after an international campaign of criticism against the arrest of the 3 leaders in the Initiative (non-governmental) which was launched by the UN, several countries and international and regional human rights organizations which was described by the activists as “the largest” during the recent years. The Initiative stated on its twitter account that the executive director of the Initiative, Gasser Abdel Razeq and his two colleagues in the Initiative, the administrative director Mohamed Basheer, and the director of the Criminal Justice Unit, Karim Annara, were released directly from Tora prison, and they are actually now in their home
Releasing the three leaders of the Initiative sparked widespread reactions on social media, and in particular what was spread about the role of the US actress Scarlett Johanson in their release.
It is noted that before the release of the three leaders in the Initiative, security persons, wearing civilian clothes went to the family’s home of Hossam Bahgat, the founder of the EIPR and its acting director, in Alexandria which is the address in his national identity and asked his mother about his place after a day from interrogating the guard of the house by the same force about the same matter.
However in the meantime, the Terrorism Circuit in the Cairo Criminal Court decided to renew the imprisonment of the young researcher Patrick George Zaki, the activist in the EIPR and the student in Bologna university in Italy who was arrested upon his return to Egypt in early February. The Terrorism Circuit allowed, for the first time, representatives of several European embassies, including France, Italy, Germany and the European Union, to attend the renewal of Patrick’s imprisonment, and the court also allowed him to present his defense, as well as to his lawyer, in an atmosphere that seemed more open than the previous renewal sessions.
Regarding the famous foreign funding case, Counselor Ali Mukhtar, the Delegated Investigative Judge in Case No.173 of 2011 Concerning Foreign Funding of Civil Society Organizations, issued an order that criminal proceedings against 20 organizations, entities and associations should not be instituted and the investigations with them ended. That is because there isn’t a crime found regarding 6 of them, and insufficient evidence against 14 others due to the difference in the legal positions, the different legal nature and evidence.
A statement by the investigating judge stated that successive investigative judges on the case since 2011 have made great efforts to accurately determine the validity of what is attributed to each organization, entity or association under investigation. They gathered available information to the relevant authorities such as the security services, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Solidarity and banks, and others in addition, the formation of technical committees to review accounts and financial actions of the organizations, entities and associations under investigation. The lawsuit papers have reached more than 20 thousand papers so far.
On the other hand, Nasser Amin, the head of the Arab Center for the Independence of the Judiciary and the Legal Profession, said that this decision:
“Circumventing the state’s crisis with civil society organizations since 2011” expecting the resumption of investigations with representatives of “serious” human rights organizations and referring their members to “criminal offenses”
The head of the Arab Center for the Independence of the Judiciary explained that the 20 organizations which were included in the decision to preserve the investigation are non-governmental organizations registered with the Ministry of Solidarity, and they operate normally, and have nothing to do with Case 173 of 2011.
Hossam Bahgat, the acting director of the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights EIPR who is banned from traveling pending case No. «173 of 2011», considered that the decision does not reflect a specific direction for the progress of the suspended investigations with workers of human rights organizations since its assignment to an investigative judge in 2016. Bahgat explained to “Mada Masr” that “closing the investigations” does not clarify whether there is a tendency to end the case, similar to what happened with foreign organizations in 2018, or to resume investigations with independent human rights organizations.
In the same week, the Third Terrorism Circuit at the Cairo Criminal Court upheld the decision of the Attorney General to ban the executive director of EIPR, Gasser Abdel Razeq, its administrative director, Mohamed Basheer, and the director of the criminal justice unit, Karim Annara, from disposing of their personal funds, property and any shares they own in the “Initiative” on a temporary basis, without the decision being applied to the account of the “initiative” as an entity.
The judgement came without hearing the defense’s pleadings and without allowing them to view any papers or read the order prohibiting their behavior, according to the publication of the “Initiative”, about the session that took place at the Institute of Police Secretaries in Tura.
Another Judgment.. And the imprisonment for hundreds during 12 hours
The competent investigation authorities decided to imprison businessman Sayed Al Sweerky, owner of “Al-Tawhid Wa Al Noor” stores, for 15 days pending investigations, accusing him of joining a terrorist group and its goals. He was charged with joining a terrorist group established against the provisions of the law, as its purpose was to call for the suspension of the provisions of the Constitution and laws and to prevent state institutions and public authorities from carrying out their activities. In addition, the investigative authorities charged him with several crimes, including financing a terrorist group with the intention of disturbing the public peace within the framework of the goals of the terrorist Muslim Brotherhood movement, which aims to undermine confidence in the Egyptian state and its institutions.
The security services had arrested the owner of the stores of Al Tawhid We Al Nour, Sayed Ragab Al Sweerky, on charges of financing the terrorist group, and the relevant authorities will start investigating him shortly.
The Egyptian judiciary considers prisons as crowded camps. The Third Circuit of the Cairo Criminal Court renewed, in its latest session, the imprisonment of about 750 accused persons who are distributed into more than 50 cases. This session began at 10:30 in the morning and ended 12 hours later.
One of the lawyers who attended the hearing, expressed his concern about the health risks of such a session on the accused persons. He said that they remained sitting for hours, divided between the dock and the temporary detention cells in the court, as well as the presence of defendants who are in poor health and accused women who have their children, after they gave birth during the period of imprisonment, all this in addition to the attendance of hundreds of lawyers who were not accommodated by the courtroom.
The session witnessed the renewal of the imprisonment of Abul-Fotouh, the head of the Strong Egypt Party, who has been imprisoned since February 2018, and the lawyer Hoda Abdel Moneim, who has been in detention since November 2018, and who arrived in an ambulance court, days after a complaint by her family about her deteriorating health condition, which was denied by the Ministry of Interior. In addition, Patrick George Zaki, a researcher at the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights, was among those who had been renewed. The source considered that “holding a session for such a number of defendants and renewing their imprisonment all makes it a formality. Thus, what is the value of the lawyer to present his defence before the court if it would renew the imprisonment of the accused person at end in violation of the law”. Another lawyer, in his statements to “Mada Masr” expected that the same scene would be repeated in a coming session at the same Circuit where it is expected to consider the orders to renew the imprisonment of more than 650 accused persons.
The press A humiliated voice
In a new escalation of the incident that arouse the public opinion, known in the media as “the crisis of the minister and journalists in Saqqara”, more than 200 journalists from various national, party and private press institutions submitted today a memorandum No.5848 to the Head of the Press Syndicate and members of the Syndicate Council, to demand a decisive actions in order to make the Minister of Tourism and Antiquities Khaled Al-Anani apologize for the insults and irresponsible allegations that he made towards a group of journalists who cover the file of the Egyptian national economy. They represent the newspapers “Al-Ahram, the Middle East News Agency, Al-Gomhoria, Al-Akhbar Al-Masai, Rose El youssef, Al Wafd, Al Nahar, Al Bawaba News, Al Borsa, Al Mal, Al Fajr, Masrawy, and others. As well as the dismissal of the media advisor, Nevin Al Aref, from her position, for her bad dealings with journalists, besidesher accountability by the Syndicate as she is a member of the Press Syndicate for her work as a journalist at Al-Ahram Foundation.
Everywhere justice is against the Egyptians: The European Court of Justice lifted the freeze on the funds of the ousted
After 4 years of freezing, the European Court of Justice canceled the sanctions imposed on the late President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak and his family members, and reversed the freezing of their funds.
The British newspaper “The Times” said that the Mubaraks – who were toppled by the 25th of January revolution in 2011 – may reap unexpected financial gains after the highest court in the European Union canceled the penalties imposed on them, and they would be able to dispose of their money in Europe. The European Justice ruled that the sanctions imposed on Mubaraks in 2016 were illegal, in a decision praised by the late president’s lawyers describing it as a “strong situation”.
This decision came weeks after another one issued by the Court of Appeal, by which it agreed to terminate the effect of the prevention order issued against the Mubarak family, demanding the Central Bank to take the necessary banking and legal action in this regard.
Mubarak’s two sons, Gamal (56 years) and Alaa (60 years), had wealth that was frozen in Swiss banks after the ouster of the former president. It is estimated at:
It is noteworthy that in early 2016, the Cairo Criminal Court sentenced Mubarak and his two sons Alaa and Gamal to 3 years in prison on charges of corruption which was known in the media as the case of “presidential palaces.”
The regime’s response A sarcastic and ridiculous response
In an official response, related to the above, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi said that civil society organizations are “very important”, denying that he is among “violent and authoritarian leaders”, that took place due to the widespread international human rights criticism.
This came during a press conference in Paris between Al-Sisi and the French President Emmanuel Macron. Sisi said that “Egypt has 55 thousand civil society organizations, and they are an original and very important part of the civil work in which we seek civil society to be a partner of the government.” He asked: “How many of them (civil society organizations) complained about not making work available to them easily and completely?”. He continued: “Your concern (he did not specify who) in this matter is that we do not respect the people, we do not like our (civil) societies, or that we are violent, fierce, tyrannical leaders (…) Is it appropriate”.
While another wave of corona is expected to enter Egypt, the number of victims among doctors in combating Coronavirus, according to the Egyptian Medical Syndicate page, has reached:
The Parliamentary action: The budget is a law and the action is parliamentary without regulations
During this week, the Assembly has witnessed various kinds of verbal abuse that happened after the speech of the deputy, Mohamed Al Affas (Dignity Coalition), on the occasion of discussing the budget bill and the task of the Ministry of Women, Family and the Elderly. His speech included ethical description by religious justifications that degrade the opponents of his ideology.
All organizations, parties and associations condemned the deputy’s statements, considering them a great danger, not only to the Tunisian women’s rights, but also to the Tunisian society in all its components. In her speech at the plenary session on Sunday the 6th of December of 2020, Leila Haddad, a deputy from the Democratic bloc, called on the Public Prosecution to examine the speeches of some deputies that glorify terrorism and spreed an extremist and violent ISIS speech. In addition, the Women’s Union denounced this reactionary speech.
On Monday, the 7th of December, Physical abuse wasn’t lost in this atmosphere which led to the injury of the deputy Anwar Bel Shahid in his forehead and the violent attack against the deputy Samya Abbou. As a result, the plenary session was suspended that was dedicated to discussing the 2021 budget bill.
After this incident, some injured deputies went to Carthage palace to make a complaint to the president Kais Saeied who showed a positive response to them and expressed his support. In addition, he denounced in his speech all types of violence and warned those persons who breach the state’s laws or ignore them, stressing that he is working in silence and the time will come when he will intervene sooner or later. On the other hand, the response of Seif Al Din Makhlouf was sarcastic against the presidency of the republic.
The speaker of the Assembly confirmed in a statement that:
The deputies of the Democratic bloc called for a plenary session concerning the assault against its deputies. In addition, the Democratic bloc, the People’s movement, the Heart of Tunisia, the Reform bloc, Long Live Tunisia (Tahya Tounes) bloc and the individual deputies who are represented by Meriam Al Loghmany, signed a joint statement that gives the speaker of the Assembly, Rached Ghannouchi a time limit to the end of approving the budget in order to rescind immunity from the deputies of the Dignity coalition and to file a lawsuit against their violence, threatening to implement all the necessary moves in case their demands were not met, according to a statement read by Zoheir Maghzawi during a press conference held on Monday, the 7th of December of 2020 in the Assembly.
That created a status of chaos inside the Assembly due to the statements of condemning violence between a supporter and an opponent. The members of the Heart of Tunisia bloc withdrew from the plenary session dedicated to reviewing the budget bill on the 8th of December, protesting against “the violence against the head of the session, Samira Al Chaouachi”.
In the same context, the head of the democratic bloc, Mohamed Ammar, announced during a press conference at the headquareter of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People on Tuesday, the 8th of December of 2020, to enter an open sit in at the headquarter of the Assembly, protesting against what he considered “ a process of systematic procrastination, conspiracy and collusion from the presidency of the Assembly”, denouncing whitening terrorism and protecting its prepetrators”.
During a meeting held on Saturday, the Assembly’s office, under the supervision of Samira Al Chaouachi, First Deputy Speaker of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People, had considered the report of the Finance, Planning and Development Committee on the budget bill for 2021, and decided to refer it to the plenary session, according to a statement issued by Assembly.
During the plenary session on Monday the 7th of december of 2020, the deputies of the people approved the first chapters of the budget’s provisions of the budget bill for 2021 after they dropped it in the finance committee.
The Minister of Economy, Finance and Investment support, Ali Al Ka’ali responded to some demands of the blocs representing the government especially the Ennahda movement and the Heart of Tunisia, as he made some amendments to the bill.
The budget bill: Between loans and collecting taxes, the economic solutions are limited
The majority of the deputies considered that the 2021 budget is a budget that depends on loans from other countries, and not on supporting and saving the current economic situation. That is a threatening warning and a step towards moral colonialism from the countries’ lenders which put the state’s sovereignty at risk. Despite all the aforementioned, Hecham Mechichi believes that it is in the country’s interest to approve the budget and give priority to the public interest. The president, Kais Saeied stressed that point of view during his meeting with the speaker of the Assembly and the prime minister on Saturday, the 5th of December. This meeting discussed the general situations in the country during the recent days which witnessed protests in several regions. In addition, the meeting discussed the initiative of the Tunisian Public Labour Union. The president asserted that he accepts all suggestions, however he doesn’t accept the participation of the corrupt people in that, according to his expression. He asserted at the same time the necessity to respond to legitimate demands of the Tunisian people, away from the narrow considerations, the attempts to barter trade, blackmail and the attempts to destroy the state from persons at home.
On Tuesday, the 8th of December of 2020, the budgets allocated to the government were approved and the budgets of 16 ministries (interior, economy and finance, religious affairs, trade, industry, communication technology, tourism, transportation, equipment, cultural affairs, youth and sports, women and childhood affairs, health, Social affairs, education, and higher education).
The budgets’ bills allocated to the Supreme Judicial Council, the Constitutional Court, the Court of Accounts, and the Independent High Authority for Elections were approved. In addition, the deputies approved the tasks related to financing expenditures and unallocated emergency expenditures from the state budget’s bill for 2021.
Regarding the Ministry of Finance, the Minister of Economy, Finance and Investment Support, Ali Al Ka’ali, in his answers to the deputies during the plenary session on Sunday the 6th of December of 2020 devoted to reviewing the budget act bill for 2021, stated that it is not possible to burden individuals with more taxes. He explained that the procedures of the budget act bill aim to strengthen the economic movement, indicating that the burdens have been reduced to be able to contain the parallel economy.
The minister also emphasized that there are many difficulties, but that the will is also available to overcome all obstacles, indicating that the government decided to avoid non-essential expenses and reduce expenses.
Meanwhile, the Minister of Justice, in his meeting with the French Ambassador, stressed the need for more cooperation between the French judiciary and the Tunisian judiciary in the matter of the file of looted and smuggled funds abroad, and to help Tunisia recover its money deposited in French banks, especially in such a difficult and critical circumstance that the country’s economy faces.
It could be noted that the Parliamentary and governmental action is concentrating on the financial and economic situation of the country. However the solutions on the short and medium term didn’t search for ending corruption as for example, and that is the real danger that causes the waste of the public money.
The human rights during the democratic transition: A crisis of demands, consolidation and exercise
Most sectors are experiencing successive strikes, starting with judges, doctors, and railway workers, while citizens protest the lack of natural gas cylinders for heating in winter. The light between the right and limit is no longer clear except for those persons who demand, while the State does not seem capable of achieving a balance between them. By the stop of the institutions and the absence of social and economic programs, the crises of large sectors in the Tunisian society continue without understanding and solving.
Meanwhile, populist and conservative speeches are escalating, especially with regard to women’s rights. There is actually no serious dialogue in the corridors of the Assembly regarding the system of universal rights. In addition, Bad speeches dominate the handling of ideas and laws.