Studies and reports

The crisis of the Democratic transition : a crisis of transition and democracy

This report covers the extended period from October 1 to December 31, 2020. It includes three countries: Egypt, Tunisia and Libya. The report is on the policies and legislations related to democratic transition and human rights:
It reviews the indicators of a systematic policy of the Egyptian regime to deepen its dominance. In addition, it shows all the regime’s tools which emptied every thinking for a democratic transition in Egypt. The road to make dictatorship prevail starts through a set of amendments that included the Constitution and a set of laws such as the Law Redrawing Electoral Districts and the law on Exercise of Political Rights. In addition, 6 laws related to the Armed Forces, Terrorist Entities, NGO and its bylaws. This road has led to the legislative elections. Through using the law and political institutions, the regime restricted and excluded opposition in the Parliament in order to limit its presence to some persons unlike what was in the previous parliament.
Meanwhile, political clientelism, family favoritism and influence circles were established from independent businessmen and persons with security and military backgrounds. In the two chambers of the legislative authority there is at least 30 persons who are relatives, brothers and cousins who have gathered to support the regime. The later wasn’t satisfied by controlling institutions on the basis of dictatorship, rather it moves to establish a network of security, family, political and financial interests supervised by the security and intelligence in order not to let anyone escape from its circle of power. Through the Nation’s Future party, the regime replaced the previous parliament’s faces by new faces in order to practice the same repressive policy. Thus, every argument on separation of powers and balance among them has been become a luxury and speech freezing by the Egyptian regime.
The regime has used exceptional measures such as precautionary measures and pretrial detention as original penalties that prolong the imprisonment of activists. Moreover, civil society organizations are threatened by the law on terrorist entities. Regardless their political orientations, everyone is a terrorist or a potential terrorist according to the regime as this is considered the regime’s ready made charge . Meanwhile, judicial rulings enhance this situation as they are a tool of acquittal for those persons accused of corruption, however they criminalize activists automatically. In addition they are the are the reason for enhancing violence against the Christian minority. The last ruling regarding the second Maspero’s massacre is an evidence of structural and systematic discrimination against this minority in a clear violation of the rules and principles of the international law, in addition to the commitments of the Egyptian state to protect Christians and strengthen their positive appearance in public space.

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